Animal Welfare for Livestock Working Dogs
Basic Dog Health
The information below is only a guide and has been compiled from external sources. Breeders and owners need to research and develop their own program to suit their individual needs.
Dogs can also be vaccinated against Bordertella and Para influenza, the cause of Canine Cough. Although not fatal compared to the other viruses, it can cause a very severe cough which may lead to permanent damage to the windpipe. Puppies are vaccinated for Canine Cough at their third vaccinations, then annually.
This disease is straightforward in both its inheritance patterns and in our ability to control it. CEA is an autosomal recessive disorder. Autosomal means it is passed on and expressed equally in males or females. Recessive means a dog may carry a bad (mutated) CEA gene and pass it on to its offspring without having the disease itself. A dog is defined as Clear (or Normal) if it has no bad CEA genes. A dog is defined as a Carrier if it has one ba
Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome
Once thought to be rare, it is now believed that the disease goes undiagnosed for several reasons. First, not very many veterinarians know about the disease to look for it. Second, even when looking, blood counts do not always show lower than normal neutrophil (white blood cell) counts. Finally, because it is an autoimmune-deficiency disease, young puppies present a variety of symptoms depending upon what infections they fall prone to. Thus many cases are not properly diagnosed and have just been thought to be fading puppies.
Making the diagnosis even more difficult is the fact that age of onset varies depending on which infection is involved at the time. Most puppies become ill before leaving the breeder but some do not have symptoms until later. The oldest known survivor was 2 years 8 months. Most affected puppies die or are euthanized by about 4 months of age.
The research now suggests that the gene is widespread throughout the Border Collie breed, TNS cases have been positively diagnosed in Australia, Great Britain, Hungary, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States. The gene is autosomal recessive, which means that both parents have to be carriers to produce an affected puppy.
You can use the above table from the CEA description as a guide and a DNA test is available through Sydney University.
Hip Dysplasia (HD)
Despite what some may claim, data from numerous scientific studies provide overwhelming evidence that HD is an inherited disease. It is thought to be caused by at least three and possibly as many as six primary genes. To confuse matters more, the expression of the disease is affected by environmental conditions such as the type and amount of food a dog gets at critical growth stages, as well as the type and amount of exercise and activity it gets. It must be remembered, however, that these environmental factors do not cause HD. They merely affect whether the HD genes present in that individual will be expressed to the fullest. Even if the expression of HD in a certain individual is suppressed by careful control of environmental factors, you have not changed the dog's genetic makeup. That dog will still pass on the genetic tendency for HD just as if it actually had the disease. Conversely, if a dog does not have the genes for HD, it won't develop the disease no matter how it's raised.